Ini Perbedaan Pendidikan Formal, Non-Formal, dan Informal

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DIDIKPOS.COM – Berdasarkan Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional Tahun 1989, pendidikan dilaksanakan dalam bentuk bimbingan, pengajaran, dan latihan.

Banyak orang tua yang mengupayakan pendidikan bagi buah hatinya dengan jalur pendidikan yang berbeda.

Jalur pendidikan adalah wahana yang dilalui peserta didik untuk mengembangkan potensi diri dalam suatu proses pendidikan yang sesuai dengan tujuan pendidikan.

Dalam UU No. 20 tahun 2003 Pasal 13 ayat 1 dinyatakan bahwa jalur pendidikan terdiri dari pendidikan formal, non-formal dan informal.

Apa perbedaan ketiganya? Untuk melihat perbedaannya, mari melihat penjelasannya berikut ini:

Pendidikan Formal

Pendidikan ini merupakan pendidikan yang diselenggarakan di sekolah-sekolah pada umumnya.

Menurut Pasal 1 ayat 6 Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 17 Tahun 2010 tentang Pengelolaan dan Penyelenggaraan Pendidikan, jalur pendidikan ini mempunyai jenjang pendidikan yang jelas, mulai dari pendidikan dasar, pendidikan menengah, sampai pendidikan tinggi.

Jalur pendidikan ini adalah yang paling umum dan sering ditempuh di Indonesia, mengingat sifatnya yang formal dan lulusannya diakui secara nasional baik internasional.

Tujuan pendidikan secara umum yaitu untuk membentuk manusia yang memiliki kedewasaan jasmani dan rohani.

Adapun beberapa karakteristik dari pendidikan formal adalah sebagai berikut:

– Memiliki kurikulum yang jelas.
– Memberlakukan syarat tertentu bagi peserta didik.
– Materi pembelajaran yang digunakan bersifat akademis.
– Proses pendidikannya cukup lama.
– Tenaga pengajar harus memenuhi klasifikasi tertentu.
– Penyelenggaraan pendidikan berasal dari pihak pemerintah maupun swasta.
– Peserta didik mengikuti ujian formal.
– Adanya pemberlakukan administrasi yang seragam.
– Kredensials (Ijazah, dan sebagainya) memegang peranan penting terutama bagi penerimaan siswa pada tingkatan pendidikan yang lebih tinggi.

Pendidikan Non-Formal

Pendidikan non-formal adalah jalur pendidikan di luar pendidikan formal yang dapat dilaksanakan secara terstruktur dan berjenjang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pendidikan peserta didik tertentu untuk mendapatkan informasi, pengetahuan, latihan, dan bimbingan sehingga mampu bermanfaat bagi keluarga, masyarakat, dan negara.

Pendidikan non-formal paling banyak terdapat pada usia dini, misalnya saja Taman Pendidikan Al Quran yang banyak terdapat di Masjid.

Selain itu, ada juga berbagai kursus, di antaranya kursus musik, bimbingan belajar, dan sebagainya.

Philip H.Coombs berpendapat bahwa pendidikan non-formal adalah setiap kegiatan pendidikan yang terorganisir yang diselenggarakan di luar sistem formal, baik tersendiri maupun merupakan bagian dari suatu kegiatan yang luas, yang dimaksudkan untuk memberikan layanan kepada sasaran didik tertentu dalam mencapai tujuan-tujuan belajar.

Ditinjau dari faktor tujuan belajar/pendidikan, pendidikan non formal bertanggung jawab menggapai dan memenuhi tujuan-tujuan yang sangat luas jenis, level, maupun cakupannya.

Jadi, Anda dapat memberikan pendidikan non-formal kepada buah hati dengan tujuan yang ingin dicapai.

Adapun beberapa karakteristik pendidikan non-formal antara lain sebagai berikut:

– Bertujuan untuk memperoleh keterampilan yang segera akan dipergunakan. Pendidikan non formal menekankan pada belajar yang fungsional yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan dalam kehidupan peserta didik.
– Berpusat pada peserta didik. Dalam pendidikan non formal dan belajar mandiri, peserta didik adalah pengambilan inisiatif dan mengontrol kegiatan belajarnya.
– Waktu penyelenggaraannya relatif singkat, dan pada umumnya tidak berkesinambungan.
– Menggunakan kurikulum kafetaria. Kurikulum bersifat fleksibel, dapat dimusyawarahkan secara terbuka, dan banyak ditentukan oleh peserta didik.
– Menggunakan metode pembelajaran yang partisipatif, dengan penekanan pada belajar mandiri.
– Hubungan pendidik dengan peserta didik bersifat mendatar. Pendidik adalah fasilitator bukan menggurui. Hubungan di antara kedua pihak bersifat informal dan akrab, peserta didik memandang fasilitator sebagai narasumber dan bukan sebagai instruktur.
– Mengingat sumber-sumber untuk pendidikan sangat langka, maka diusahakan sumber-sumber lokal digunakan seoptimal mungkin.
– Kredensials umumnya kurang memegang peranan penting, terutama bagi penerimaan siswa.

Pendidikan Informal

Jalur pendidikan ketiga yakni pendidikan informal, jalur pendidikan keluarga dan lingkungan berbentuk kegiatan belajar secara mandiri yang dilakukan secara sadar dan bertanggung jawab.

Pendidikan ini bisa kita temui lewat sekolah rumah (homeschooling) atau juga Pusat Kegiatan Belajar Mengajar (PKBM).

Terdapat beberapa alasan pemerintah mengagas pendidikan informal, yakni sebagai berikut:

– Pendidikan dimulai dari keluarga.
– Informal diundangkan juga karena untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan nasional dimulai dari keluarga.
– Homeschooling: pendidikan formal tapi dilaksanakan secara informal.
Anak harus dididik dari lahir.

Adapun beberapa karakteristik pendidikan informal antara lain sebagai berikut:

– Dapat diselenggarakan di mana saja khususnya pada lingkungan keluarga.
– Tidak terdapat persyaratan khusus yang harus dilengkapi.
– Peserta didik tidak perlu mengikuti ujian tertentu.
– Proses pendidikan dilakukan oleh keluarga dan lingkungan.
– Tidak terdapat kurikulum tertentu yang harus dijalankan.
– Tidak terdapat jenjang dalam proses pendidikannya.
– Proses pendidikan dilakukan secara terus menerus tanpa mengenal ruang dan waktu.
– Orang tua merupakan guru bagi anak didik.
– Tidak terdapat manajemen yang jelas dalam proses pembelajaran.
– Tidak perlu adanya kredensials.

Pendidikan formal dan informal memang berbeda. Salah satunya, pendidikan formal mengenal ujian nasional (UN), sedangkan peserta didik pendidikan informal mengikuti Ujian Nasional Pendidikan Kesetaraan (UNPK).

Hasil pendidikan informal diakui sama dengan pendidikan formal dan nonformal setelah peserta didik lulus ujian sesuai dengan standar nasional pendidikan.

Sayangnya, meski hasilnya diakui kesetaraannya masih banyak yang memandang pendidikan informal sebelah mata.***

Sumber: Unnes.ac.id

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